While Cronquist was in his mid-thirties, he began to question the usefulness of Adolf Engler & Karl Prantl's taxonomic system, laid down in their work Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien (The Natural Plant Families), which had been the dominant system since the late 19th century. Although Cronquist was originally involved mostly with the family Asteraceae rather than with general systems, he began publishing on the topic in 1957 after much discussion with his peers concerning the challenge of forming a new taxonomic system. His initial publication (Cronquist, 1957) dealt purely with dicotyledons. At the time he began his work on his general scheme of classification, several others were working with the same goal in mind, including the American Robert F. Thorne, the Dane Rolf Dahlgren, and Armen Takhtajan of the U.S.S.R. Each of them would go on to produce their own taxonomic schemes, though Cronquist's would prove to be the most widely adopted. While working on the project in the 1960s, Cronquist came to be close friends with Armen Takhtajan and both men put all of their information at one another's disposal. To this end Cronquist decided to learn Russian in order to have access to the scientific literature that the Soviet Union had accumulated, which was largely unknown to the rest of the world. He made several trips to the U.S.S.R. to meet with Takhtajan and other Soviet botanists and translated many botanical works from Russian throughout his life.
For his doctoral work, the "big blonde Swede" - as some called him - went to the University of Minnesota, doing a revision of the North American species of Erigeron. Maguire proposed E. cronquistii in 1944, with Cronquist proposing E. maguirei in 1947. During the Second World War, Arthur, who was exempt because of an injury to an elbow, worked on Simaroubaceae for Merick Pharmaceutical Company in an effort to discover alternative for quinine, and for the Chicle Company to find a substitute for chewing gum. After the War, Cronquist went to Brussels to continue his work on Simaroubaceae and the flora of Africa as part of an effort to improve conditions in scientific institutions in Europe.
BHL operates as a worldwide consortium of natural history, botanical, research, and national libraries working together to digitize the natural history literature held in their collections and make it freely available for open access as part of a global "biodiversity community."
The seven volumes of Intermountain Flora are the professional culmination of life-long botanical labors by the six primary series authors: Arthur H Holmgren, Arthur Cronquist, Rupert C Barneby, Noel H Holmgren, James L Reveal, and Patricia K Holmgren. This volume set is the definitive authority on the vascular plants that inhabit the Rocky Mountain region of the US. Included are descriptions of plant species that inhabit an area incorporating all but the southernmost parts of Utah and Nevada, the southeastern quarter of Oregon, the southern two-fifths of Idaho, California east of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, southwestern Wyoming, and Arizona north of the Colorado River. The series provides effectual keys, comprehensive individual species descriptions, and accurate detailed line drawings.
The seventh volume of Intermountain Flora was authored by Noel H Holmgren and Patricia K Holmgren and provides an appropriate terminus to the six earlier volumes. Rather than stressing species descriptions, this final volume provides an array of peripheral information associated with botanical classification of Rocky Mountain plant species. Integrated in this volume is a listing of plant families included in the first six volumes, acknowledgment of sources and contributors for the series, and keys to families included in Intermountain Flora. Additionally, the volume provides a history of the Intermountain Flora project, biographies of the principal authors and contributing artists, and photographs of plant collectors whose specimens provided the basis for descriptions included in the series. An update of the genus Penstemon is provided in the seventh volume, including revised keys and descriptions of species added or altered since 1984.
The seventh volume of Intermountain Flora is a unique collection of important, historically meaningful botanical facts compiled by rare individuals who have a lifetime of exposure to the subject. It is a fitting conclusion to a masterfully compiled flora describing plants of a diverse and unique geographical region. [End Page 135]
This guide is focused primarily on grasses, sedges and rushes of the northeastern United States, many of which are also found in the mid-Atlantic region. These plants can be hard to identify, and this book can help botanical amateurs identify the common ones.
This book is appropriate for the beginning native plant gardener. The common and botanical name, height, and blooming period of each plant is given, along with its soil, sun, shade, and moisture requirements. Other data includes each plant's native habitat and range (Northeast, prairies, or Northwest), description, propagation, good companions, and related species. Such familiar plants as bee balm, black-eyed Susan, Christmas fern, Jacob's ladder, purple coneflower, and Virginia bluebells are listed.
Grigson, Geoffrey. The Englishman's flora: illustrated with woodcuts from sixteenth century herbals. (London: Phoenix House, 1987, c1955). Illus.; bibliography. *R-QEG 93-7897. A classic of botanical folklore and medical botany. 2b1af7f3a8