"As most have been schooled to understand, there are two kinds of charts, bar and pie, with an equal number of flaws. Bar charts contain the perfectly simple workings of "cheater numbers" and pie charts contain the perfectly complicated workings of data whose arithmetic sum is always exactly equal to the difference between the highest and lowest values represented, when all of the best 80% of each category is included. By placing a pole of some type on a map, some of the inherent problems from these typical maps are reduced, but not eliminated. A bar or pie chart is usually the best, and sometimes the only, solution possible for expressing a set of data. Figure 1 represents an example of a bad bar chart (no pole), while Figure 2 represents a good bar chart if the data is suitably analyzed by using a pole."
"Unfortunately for map users, maps come in two kinds, location and scale. Location maps, like road maps, identify destination points on a map; but the scale maps, like topographic maps, identify the contours of a region, from sea level to high peaks.
"The National Parks and other great land conservation areas are often found on topographic maps, but not always. Many other internationally important conservation areas are found on location maps. These conservation areas include Libyan Desert,Rigas and Karanbi forests, Yangtze River fringes,Jadira drainage in Peshawar, Pakistan, Xigaze Wetland, and Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. These areas are not and should not be considered to be part of the National Parks system."
"The initial wave of development in America occurred with the rush to find virgin lands as source material for mining. In the late 18th Century, energy-rich Pennsylvania provided free land to gold seekers, which led to the development of a network of thousands of miles of rail lines serving the mining and smelting interests throughout the west. While the rails were the lifeblood of the transcontinental railway system, they didn't have very important places associated with them. d2c66b5586